I cannot stress enough that I received the lion's share of my knowledge from my father-in-law, John's, Western Civilization and Survey of English History classes. He teaches at Maple Woods Community College in Kansas City, MO. Enroll in one of his courses, if you ever get the chance--he's the best!! Or at the very least, visit his Western Civilization sites (they include "Student Notes" and everything!!).
THESE TIMELINES WERE BEGUN FOR MY OWN PERSONAL USE. THESE TIMELINES SHOULD NOT BE USED AS RESOURCES FOR ANY KIND OF RESEARCH PAPER. THESE TIMELINES SHOULD ONLY BE USED AS AN AID TO GIVE A "JUMPING OFF POINT." THESE TIMELINES ARE NOT PEER-REVIEWED; THEREFORE, THEY ARE SUBJECT TO ANY NUMBER OF UNINTENTIONAL AUTHORIAL TYPING ERRORS AND/OR MISUNDERSTANDINGS. REMEMBER, INTERNET SOURCES (WITH FEW EXCEPTIONS) CANNOT BE RELIED UPON AS DEFINITIVE SOURCES!!
Because I did these timelines initially only for my own personal use, I have paraphrased and quoted without citing as one should for a research paper; therefore, anyone using these timelines should consult the sources listed on the Historical Timelines Page.
DO NOT QUOTE FROM THESE TIMELINES!! ALWAYS DOUBLE-CHECK MY WORK!!!!
Wars and Military Conflicts:
Trojan Wars @1200 BC Trojans/People of Troas vs. Greeks
Greco-Persian Wars (500-449 BC) Persian Empire vs. Greek City-States
Battle of Marathon (492 BC) Athenians win
Battle of Thermopylae (@482 BC) Athenians and Spartans lose
Battle of Salamis (Naval) (@482 BC) Athenians win
Peloponnesian War 431-404 BC Athenians (Sea Power) vs. Spartans (Land power, allied with Corinth and Thebes), Sparta ultimately wins
Battle of Leuctra (371 BC) Epaminondas' "Sacred Band" of Thebans beat Spartans
Battle of Chaeronea (338 BC) Philip II of Macedon wins Greece
1st Punic War (264-261 BC) Carthage vs. Rome
2nd Punic War (218-201 BC) pits Carthage's Hannibal vs. Rome's Scipio Africanus Major
1st Macedonian War (215-205 BC) Macedon (under Philip V) vs. Rome
2nd Macedonian War (200-197 BC) Macedon vs. Rome
3rd Macedonian War (171-168 BC) Macedon (under Philip V's son Perseus) vs. Rome
3rd Punic War (149-146 BC) Carthage vs. Rome-Cato the Elder demanded Carthage be destroyed
1st Servile War (Slave Uprising in Sicily-Rome) (135-133 or 134-132 BC)
2nd Servile War (Slave Uprising in Sicily-Rome) (105-102 BC or 104-101 BC)
3rd Servile War (Slave Uprising in Campania-Rome) (73-71 BC) led by Spartacus, quashed by Crassus and Pompey
Social War (90-88 BC) Sulla vs. Marius in Rome
Gallic Wars (58-50 BC) Romans vs. Gaul
Julius Caesar invades Celtic Britain (55 BC)
Parthian War (53 BC) Romans vs. Parthians
Roman Conquest of England (40 AD)
Battle of Actium (31 BC) Romans Antony vs. Octavius-Cleopatra's ship leaves and Antony follows
Pax Romana (Roman Peace) (27 BC-180 AD)
Alaric I takes Rome (410 AD)
Gaiseric (Vandals) takes Rome (455 AD)
Pope Leo I begs Attila the Hun to leave Rome unsacked
Anglo-Saxons and Jutes come into England in late 5th Century
Viking/Danish Raids into England--8th Century until middle of 9th Century-Full-scale Invasion in 860's
Battle of Hastings (Senlac) - Norman Conquest of England (1066) William the Conqueror wins against Harold Godwin
Inquisition--1233 until 1800s (mostly in Southern France, Northern Italy, Papal States, and Germany)
Great Schism (1378-1417)-Division in Roman Catholic Church (Two then three popes claimed to be legitimate)
Hundred Years War (1337-1453)
On and off conflict between French and English.
Battle of Hastings in Sussex (1066)-William, Duke of Normandy becomes king of England (but still owns property in France which becomes part of England). 1337-French seize English-held Guyenne (in modern-day France). England's Edward III had refused to pay feudal homage for his French territories. This started the war. English win the Battles of Crecy (1346) and Calais (1347). English force major territorial concessions for release of French king (captured in 1356 at Battle of Poitiers) in 1360. French eventually won the territory back. Henry V of England arrests this at Agincourt (1415). Treaty of Troyes in 1420.
English fail at siege of Orleans (1428-1429) and Battle of Patay (1429) due to leadership of Joan of Arc (1412?-1431). English were defeated at Castillon in 1453. English would be expelled from French soil. At conclusion, French reclaim all except Calais (which went back in 1558)
Battle of Kosovo Field (1389) Turks under Murad I defeated Serbians, Bosnians, Montenegrins, Bulgarians, and other allies. Serbian Milosh Obilich, posing as a Serb deserter, stabbed Murad to death before the battle. Milosh was immediately killed. Prince Lazardy of Serbia was killed immediately after his capture. This battle broke the power of Serbia and Bulgaria. Kosovo means "Black Birds"
Kosovo-Slavs in 7th Century, Bulgaria in 9th Century, Serbia in 12th Century
1448-another battle at Kosovo-Sultan Murad II defeats Hungarian army under John Hunyadi
War of the Roses (House of Lancaster-Red Rose Later vs. House of York-White Rose) (1455-1485) Henry VII of House of Tudor (related to House of Lancaster) wins in 1485 and marries Elizabeth of York to join the two houses.
Spanish Inquisition 1478-1820
Treaty of Cambrai (1529)
Treaty of Crepy (1547)
Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis (1559)
Throughout 16th and 17th centuries
1736-1739 Russia and Austria vs. Ottomans
1787-1792 (Catherine II gets help from Joseph II from 1788)
Treaty of Adrianople recognizes Greece's autonomy
1853-becomes Crimean War
Thirty Years War (1618-1648) Protestant German princes, French, Swedish, English, and Denmark vs. Hapsburgs and Catholic princes of Holy Roman Empire (Catholics-King Ferdinand II) Fought mainly in Germany. Leaves Germany devastated. Bohemian Protestants revolt against Ferdinand II. Devastates Germany lands, Divides HRE, Decrease power of Hapsburgs. Treaty of Westphalia (1648)-increased religious tolerance. Swedish and French vs. Spain and HRE. Sovereignty of German states recognized, HRE and Hapsburgs power is decreased, Alsace ceded to France. Sweden gets W. Pomerania. Swiss confederation and independent Netherlands is recognized. Calvinism recognized. France is a major power.
Pequot War (North American British colonists vs. Pequot Indians-the Pequot of Connecticut and Rhode Island are almost completely wiped out) (1637)
English Civil Wars (King, Anglicans, and Catholics-Cavaliers vs. Parliament and Puritans-Roundheads) (1642-1646 and 1648-1649)
French and Indian Wars (French and Indians vs. British in North America) (1689-1763)
Series of 4 Wars fought for colonial supremacy.
King William's War (1689-1697)
Queen Anne's War (1702-1713)
King George's War (1744-1748)
French and Indian War (1754-1763)
King William's War (1689-1697) French vs. British-1st of French and Indian Wars in North America
War of Spanish Succession (1701-1714)
Struggle for the Spanish throne. War pits France, Spain, Portugal, Bavaria, and Savoy vs. England, Holland, and most of the German states. Louis XIV of France, Elector of Bavaria Joseph Ferdinand, and Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I. The dying Charles II of Spain names Philip of Anjou-becomes Philip V (grandson of Louis XIV of France) as his successor.
Treaty of Utrecht (1713)-except Holy Roman Empire
Peace of Utrecht (1714)-brings the war to a close and keeps Philip V of the weakened Spanish throne.
Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) French vs. British-2nd of French and Indian Wars in North America. This happens at about the same time as the War of Spanish Succession.
War of Austrian Succession (1740-1748)
Austria vs. France, Prussia under Frederick II (Frederick the Great), and Spain. Due to Austrian Maria Theresa's succession to the Hapsburg dominions.
French supported Spanish claim to part of Hapsburg domains.
1st Silesian War (1742)
Frederick the Great occupies Silesia in 1742 (taking it from Austria).
2nd Silesian War (1744-1745)
French and Prussians defeat Austrians
King George's War (1744-1748) French vs. British-3rd of French and Indian Wars in North America. Inconclusive. Nova Scotia, New England, and Ohio Valley Boundary disputes. Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748)-conquered lands returned to former owners.
French and Indian War-Colonial American Part of 7 Years War (1754-1763)
American Colonists and British vs. French, Indians, and Canadian Colonists-this is the final and 4th War of the French and Indian Wars in North America. Fought for colonial supremacy.
Battle of the Wilderness (1755) Brits were beaten badly. French and Indians lost Louisburg (1758), Quebec (1759), and Montreal (1760) in the Americas.
Montreal surrendered to General Amhurst in 1760
Brits got almost all of French Canada, French Louisiana east of Mississippi River, and part of Florida in Peace of Paris.
George Washington (1732-1799) Commander of American Revolution, officer at French and Indian War, 1st President
Seven Years War (1756-1763) Mostly over power in the colonies
French, most of German states of Holy Roman Empire, Russia, Sweden, and Austrians vs. Brits, Hanoverians, and Prussians (Frederick II of Prussia).
French over Brits at Hastenbeck in July 1757. Russians over East Prussians.
Rossback-Frederick II defeats French (November 1757)
Zorndorf-Frederick II defeats Russians (August 1758)
Kunersdorf-Russians and Austrians defeat English and Prussians (August 1759)
Maxen-Prussians taken hostage (November 1759)
Russians burn Berlin (1760)
Prussian successes at Liegnitz and Jorgan.
Peter III of Russia liked Frederick II of Prussia so Peter made peace with Prussia and restored conquests (January 1762). Sweden also made peace in 1762. Austria was defeated at Burkersdorf in July 1762.
India-English beat French at Plassey (1757) and Pondicherry (1761).
Spain comes into the war in 1760 on France's side.
Treaty of Paris (1763)-Great Britain emerges as the strongest of the colonial powers.
Treaty of Hubertusburg (1763)-Austria, Saxony, and Prussia go back to prewar status quo.
American Revolution (1775-1783)
Writs of Assistance (General Search Warrant) (1761)
Sugar Act (1764)
Stamp Act (1765)-must place stamps on all legal documents, newspapers, and cards-repealed in 1766
Townshend Acts (1767) Duty on Tea, Glass, and Paper
Boston Massacre (1770)-5 citizens killed
Duties dropped on all except Tea after Massacre
British Tea Act (1773)
Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773)
Intolerable Acts (1774) annulled Massachusetts Charter, closed Boston Harbor, Trials for capital offenses must take place in England
1st Continental Congress in Philadelphia, PA (September 5, 1774)
George Washington-Commander in Chief-June 15, 1775
Cornwallis surrendered October 19, 1781
Treaty of Paris-September 3, 1783
Bunker Hill-June 17, 1775-Americans were driven back, Brits suffer heavy losses.
Crossing of Delaware River-Christmas 1776-Washington captured Trenton on December 26th
Princeton-Washington defeated Brits on January 3, 1777.
Saratoga-British Burgoyne was defeated and surrendered on October 17, 1777.
Oriskany-British St. Leger was defeated on August 6, 1777.
France recognized the 13 colonies in 1777. An alliance with France in 1778. Brits capture Savannah on December 29, 1778.
1779-Spain joins American Revolution vs. England. September 23, 1779-Benedict Arnold's plot to surrender West Point to the Brits was revealed. British Cornwallis surrenders on October 19, 1781 in Virginia. Treaty of Paris is signed on September 3, 1783.
French Revolution (1789-1792 or 1799)
Storming of the Bastille (June 23, 1789)
French Revolutionary Wars (1792-1797) Revolutionary France declares war on Austria
France's Reign of Terror 1793-1794
Francois-Marie-Isidore de Robespierre (1758-1794) French Revolutionary Leader (1793-1794)
Napoleonic Wars (Most of Europe vs. France) (1799-1815)
Hidalgo's Rebellion (Mexico) (September 16, 1810-1811)
Father Miguel Hidalgo led a group of mestizos and Native Americans, wanting equality, in a revolt against Spain. Had initial successes but was soundly defeated in 1811. Hidalgo was captured in March and executed (July 30, 1811). Father Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon became the next revolutionary leader. Morelos made great gains and declared Mexican independence in 1813. However, royalist forces under the criollo Agustin de Iturbide defeated Morelos in December of 1813. Morelos was captured and executed in 1815. Vicente Guerrero next took up the leadership role. The Spanish Revolution (1820) restores the more liberal Constitution of 1812, which made the elite of Mexico more than a little nervous as to the stability of the Spain. Guerrero and Iturbide met in 1821 to join forces. Iturbide becomes emperor of Mexico in 1821-he was deposed in 1823. A republic is proclaimed in 1823. Revolt after revolt followed. Santa Anna (who had deposed Iturbide) becomes president in 1833.
War of 1812 (1812-1815)
British and French were annoying U.S. ships during the Napoleonic Wars. Brits impressed U.S. sailors into service on British warships. U.S. wanted to expand into Canada and Spanish Florida and end British support of Western Indians versus American colonists moving West. June 18, 1812-U.S. declared war (led by the War Hawks, Clay and Calhoun). U.S. Navy did well, but army was bad early on. 1813-Brit blockade of U.S. Coast. Commodore Perry defeats the Brits at Battle of Lake Erie (September 1813). Battle of Thames in Canada (1813)-General William Henry Harrison (will become president) won. Battle of Lundy's Lake in Ontario (July 1814)-big casualties. Battle of Horseshoe Bend (March 1814)-General Andrew Jackson defeated the British and Indians. Brits burn Washington D.C. in August-September of 1814). Treaty of Ghent ends hostilities, everyone goes to pre-war boundaries (December 24, 1814). Before word reached the U.S., General Andrew Jackson wins a huge victory at the Battle of New Orleans (January 8, 1815). Helps U.S. save face.
General Andrew "Old Hickory" Jackson (1767-1845) officer in War of 1812, president of US.
Spanish Revolution (1820)
Greek War of Independence (1821-1829)
Greeks vs. Ottomans (joined by Mehemet Ali of Egypt in 1824)
Athens fell in 1826
British, French, Russia intervene in 1827.
Treaty of Adrianople (1829)-Greek autonomy established.
Greek Independence in 1832
Russo-Turkish War (1828-1829)
parts of Romania)
Native Governors given life tenure, Moldavia and Walachia are Russian protectorates though remaining in Ottoman Empire
Texas Revolution (1835-1836)
Santa Anna defeats a group of Texans at the Alamo (March 6, 1836). Deaths include James Bowie and Davy Crockett.
Santa Anna orders execution of over 280 Texans at Goliad (1836)
Houston defeats Santa Anna at Battle of San Jacinto (April 21, 1836)
Treaty of Velasco (May 1836)-tries to persuade Mexican government to recognize Texas independence, Mexican troops retreat to south of Rio Grande/Rio Bravo
Houston is 1st President of the Republic of Texas
Opium Wars (1839-1842 and 1856-1858) 1st--Great Britain vs. China; 2nd--Great Britain and France vs. China
Treaty of Nanking (1842) opens several Chinese ports to British and cedes Hong Kong
Treaty of Tientsin (1858) China forced to open river ports
Sikh Wars (1845-6, 1848-9)
The first Sikh War occurred when the Sikhs, worried that the British were looking to conquer Punjab and add it to India (which was completely under British control at this time), crossed the Sutlej River with troops (December 11, 1845). The Brits defeated them in 1846. The Sikhs were forced to pay an indemnity and to cede Kashmir. Punjab was put under a British protectorate, which made the Sikhs less than thrilled and caused the second Sikh War.
The second Sikh War began when 2 British officers were killed in a riot in April of 1848. This led to a general uprising, which the Brits put down in early 1849. The Brits annexed Punjab (divided in the 1947 independence of India into East Punjab, which is now in India (the vast majority of the approximately 16,000,000 Sikhs live in East Punjab) and into West Punjab, which is now in Pakistan) in March of 1849.
Mexican-American War (1846-1848)
Republic of Texas (1836-1845)
U.S. annexes Texas in December of 1845
Mexico wanted Nueces River to be the Southern boundary of Texas rather than the Rio Grande. U.S. blockades Mexican ports. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo-Mexico relinquishes Texas above Rio Grande and ceded New Mexico and California for $15 million-final adjustment in Gadsden Purchase of 1853
General Zachary "Old Rough and Ready" Taylor (1784-1850) army officer in War of 1812 and Mexican-American War, president of US
General Winfield "Old Fuss and Feathers" Scott (1786-1866) Army officer in War of 1812 and Mexican-American War.
Revolutions of 1848 (Revolutions overtook most of Europe excepting England and Russia)
Crimean War (1853-1856--Turkey vs. Russians, 1854-Brits and French enter on Turkey's side, 1855-Sardinia enters on Turkey's side) Russians vs. French over Palestinian holy places. Turks gave French access to Latin churches. Russians counter demands were turned down so Russians occupied Turkish Moldavia and Walachia. October 1853-Turks declare war. Austria remains neutral but forces Russia out of Moldavia and Walachia (Austria occupied in August 1854). Austro-Russian relations cooled considerably-stops domination of Russia in SE Europe. Horrible troop conditions-Florence Nightingale is in this conflict. Shows shabbiness of troops at that time. Congress of Paris (1856)-Russia agrees to neutral zone of Black Sea, Moldavia and Walachia are quasi-independent and become part of Romania in 1859 under Turkish suzerainty. Russia gets left mouth of Danube. Turks and Russians go back to pre-war boundaries. Lower Danube under international commission.
Mexican War of the Reform (1858-1860)
Liberals (aided by U.S.) vs. Conservatives (aided by Spain). Liberal Native American Benito Juarez bases his government in Veracruz (after being driven from Mexico City) while the conservatives have a rival government in Mexico City. Eventually, Juarez defeats the conservatives. Juarez is elected president in 1861. He tries to get Mexico's finances in order by freezing the interest on loans due to foreign powers which really annoyed the British, French, and Spanish. Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III) of France tries to use this to create a Mexican Empire (1861-1862).
May 5, 1862 (Cinco de Mayo)-Mexican general Zaragoza defeats the French at Puebla. Napoleon III sends more troops in and took over Mexico City in June 1863. Austrian Archduke Maximilian becomes the Emperor of Mexico. Juarez's liberal forces held only three states in Southern Mexico and 2 states in the north. The French were forced to leave Mexico in 1867 because they were needed in Europe. Maximilian surrendered at Queretaro. Juarez took back control. Maximilian was executed in 1867. Juarez died in office in 1872. Porfirio Diaz, the next major player in Mexico, becomes president in 1877. His reign, known as the Porfiriato, lasted from 1884-1911.
Italian War of 1859-1860 (Austria loses Lombardy)
U.S. Civil War (1861-1865)
Union under General Ulysses S. Grant (from March 1864) vs. 11 Southern States of Confederacy under General Robert E. Lee.
Dec. 20, 1861--South Carolina seceded, followed by TX, MS, GA, FL, LA and AL shortly thereafter. NC, VA, TN, and AR seceded a bit later. Confederate capital was Richmond, VA with Jefferson Davis as President. Slavery, Economic, States' Rights considerations led to the war. April 12, 1861-SC fires on Ft. Sumter.
1st Battle of Bull Run-July 21, 1861 Confederates won
Peninsular Campaign in April-June 1862 Confederates won
Shenandoah Valley in March-June 1862 General Stonewall Jackson of the Confederates won
Seven Days' Battle in June-July 1862 Confederates won
2nd Battle of Bull Run in August 1862 Confederates won
Union forces check the Confederate forces at Battles of Antietam in September 1862, Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862, and the 2 Chancellorsvilles in December 1862 and May 1863.
North blockades the South and moves West to split the Confederate forces.
Union wins-Fort Donelson, TN (February 16, 1862) and Vicksburg (November 1862-July 1863).
The Battle of Shiloh (April 1862) wasn't conclusive.
Memphis Falls in June 1862
Union wins its first major battle at the Battle of Gettysburg in June-July 1863. This is regarded as the turning point of the war.
Chattanooga (November 1863) and Wilderness (May-June 1864).
Battle of Atlanta (September 2, 1864)-Union's General Sherman wins and begins his destructive march to the sea.
Sherman sets fire to Atlanta, GA on November 15, 1864
Sherman conquers Savannah, GA in December 1864
Battle of Five Forks (April 1, 1865)-Sherman moves north and wins this which cuts the south off from its retreat route in Richmond, VA
Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse (April 9, 1865)
Austro-Prussian War (Seven Weeks War) (June 15th-August 23rd 1866)
Prussians and Italians vs. Austrians and various German States (Bavaria, Wurtenberg, Saxony, Hanover, and Baden)
Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck wants to assure Prussian supremacy in the German confederation and to remove Austria from the Confederation of German states. This war is supposedly over Schleswig-Holstein. Austrians were defeated at Koniggratz. Austria cedes Venetia to Italy and Austria leaves German Confederation. Was a very friendly war as wars go. Bismarck didn't want to make an enemy of Austria. Treaty of Prague (August 23, 1866)
Ten Years' War (1868-1878)
Cuban war against Spanish rule
October 10, 1868-Carlos Manuel de Cespedes declared revolution against Spain.
April 20, 1869-Republican government formed
Really brutal fighting characterized this war.
February 1878-Treaty of El Zanjon-agreed to an end to slavery and some reforms. Spain never honored the treaty which leads to the Cuban War of Independence/War of 1895 (1895-1898)
Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871-10 months)
Napoleon III vs. Germans (Wilhelm I at instigation of Bismarck). Throne of Spain offered to Prince of Prussia (Leopold), French upset cause Wilhelm I won't assure that the offer won't be taken. Bismarck wants to bring German states into union. French upset by this. Bismarck publishes Ems Dispatch (Bismarck's insulting version of Wilhelm I telling Bismarck that he had refused France in keeping Leopold off the throne) to inflame French into declaring war. S. German states see this as French aggression and join the Northern German Confederation. Von Moltke leads the unified German forces to siege of Paris which fell 3 months later. Unifies Prussia and South Germany, annex Alsace-Lorraine. Indirectly causes Italy to unify. New French government is the Republic and Paris Commune. Took French controls on Russian aggression away. Tension which leads to WWI.
Battle of Little Big Horn June 25, 1876
Famous U.S. Conflict between Native Americans and U.S. troops under General Custer and several American soldiers were killed by Native American forces under Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull. Also called "Custer's Last Stand."
Russo-Turkish War (1877-1878) Russians with Romanians vs. Turks
1st (1894-1895) fought over Korea. Japan won Formosa, Liaotung Peninsula, and Pescadores
2nd (1931-1945) China wins back above three areas
Cuban War of Independence/War of 1895 (1895-1898)
February 10, 1895-PRC (Cuban Revolutionary Party under the leadership of Jose Marti) begins war.
May 19, 1895-Marti is killed in the battle of Dos Rios
Thousands of Cubans incarcerated in concentration camps to prevent them from joining the revolution. The U.S. press began telling the horrific stories of the conditions in Cuba. U.S. President threatened Spain with U.S. intervention if they didn't institute reforms in 1896. In 1897, Spain relented but the Cubans were not satisfied. The explosion of the Maine on February 15, 1898 brought about the Spanish-American War which the U.S. won. Now, the U.S. had the control that the Cubans wanted for themselves. The U.S. occupied Cuba until May 20, 1902 and forced a constitution on the Cubans in 1901.
Spanish-American War (1898)
Spain vs. U.S. in Philippines and Cuba. U.S. wanted to protect investments in Cuba, Jingoism. Maine was destroyed in Havana harbor in February 1898. Admiral Dewey annihilated Spanish fleet in Manila Bay in May 1898. Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders captured heights above Santiago de Cuba. Puts Spanish fleet under bombardment. Naval Battle of Santiago ends the war. Treaty of Paris (with no Cuban representatives present) (1899) makes Cuba independent. Guam, Puerto Rico, and Philippines are ceded to U.S. for $20 million to Spain. Actually, Cuba was occupied by the U.S. until 1902 and was widely controlled and influenced by the U.S. for years to come.
Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901) Chinese try to eject or kill foreigners, representatives of foreign powers, and Chinese Christians
South African/Boer War (1899-1902) Brits vs. Boers (South Africans of Dutch Descent)-Transvaal and Orange Free State-in South Africa, Brits laid claim to lands in South African, control of commerce and mining which made the Boers nervous. Brits incorporate Boer territories into South Africa.
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
Rivalry between Russia and japan over Manchuria and Korea. February 1904-Japanese break off relations with Russia. Japanese cross Yalu from Korea to Manchuria. Treaty of Portsmouth, NH (September 15, 1905)-shows that Japan is equal to countries in the West. Chinese sovereignty in Manchuria, cedes Kwantung Peninsula and Southern Manchurian Railway to Changchow to Japan. Japanese given Southern half of Sakhalin. Russia must recognize Japanese interest in Korea. This is the primary cause of Russian Revolution of 1905. Shows Japan is a world power.
Mexican Revolution (1910-1920)
Indians and peasants (want redistribution of land, new system of government, and improved status of Indians) vs. Church and wealthy capitalists
Diaz's modernization efforts and favoring of rich landowners (which resulted in the absorption by these rich landowners of the communal lands of Native Americans which essentially made slaves of the peons whose debts were handed down to generations) set the stage for the Mexican Revolution. The divide between the rich and poor widened. Emiliano Zapata, among others, began to come up against him. Diaz finally agreed to open the election in 1910 (the elections had been shams up to this point), but he arrested his opponent, Francisco Ignacio Madero, and won again. Madero fled to San Antonio upon his release and began a revolt. Diaz resigned on May 25, 1911. Madero was not reform-minded enough so Zapata began to move against him.
Zapata's Plan of Ayala (November 1911) demanded transfer of lands to peasants and real political rights. One-time Madero supporter, Francisco "Pancho" Villa, also began to move against him because Madero moved too slowly. Victoriano Huerta, Madero's general, seized control of Mexico City and killed Madero (February 1913). Meanwhile, a third group, the Constitutionalists, led by Venustiano Carranza, began to stir things up against Huerta and the federal army. U.S. President Woodrow Wilson had the port of Veracruz sealed to keep weapons from reaching Huerta, which caused a lot of anti-American protests. Huerta resigned July of 1914. Villa and Zapata wanted land and social reforms whereas Carranza wanted political reforms so Huerta's resignation solved little or nothing. Villa and Zapata joined forces versus Carranza. Carranza's general, Alvaro Obregon, drove Villa and Zapata out of Mexico City. Carranza becomes provisional president in 1914.
August 1915-8 Latin American countries and U.S. recognized Carranza's government (U.S. to stop the violence of the Mexican rebels who had directly or indirectly killed about 100 U.S. citizens). This stopped most of the fighting, but Villa refused to give up. Villa raided Columbus, NM to show Carranza's lack of control. U.S. General Pershing tried to catch Villa but he failed. Constitution of 1917-political reforms with more social reforms than Carranza had wished (right of workers to organize and strike among other things). Carranza didn't enforce the reforms which angered many so the tumult continued. In 1920, Obregon, Adolfo de la Huerta, and Plutarco Elias Calles revolted against Carranza. Carranza was killed and Obregon became president, who instituted some reforms but was corrupt. The U.S. recognized Obregon's government in 1923. Calles succeeded Obregon.
Balkan Wars (1912-1913)
2 Successive Wars
1st-Balkan League (Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece, and Montenegro) won most of Ottoman Empire's European territory.
2nd-Serbia, Greece, and Romania vs. Bulgaria over the district of Macedonia
Greece gets Southeast Macedonia and West Thrace.
World War I (1914-1918)
Franco-Prussian War almost makes this inevitable. Begins with the Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary by Serbian nationalist in Sarajevo.
Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and OttomanEmpire/Turks vs. Allies: Great Britain, Russia, Italy, France, Belgium, Serbia, Montenegro, and Japan; U.S. enters in 1917. August 1914-Germans invade France through Belgium. Russia had to drop out of the war 1917 because of the Russian Revolution. Treaty of Brest Litovsk-March 1918 is the treaty between Russia and Central Powers. Treaty of Versailles nullifies this treaty. Turkish Armistice-October 31, 1918. Austrians surrender November 3, 1918. Armistice on Italian Front-November 4, 1918. German Armistice-November 11, 1918. Treaty of Versailles in 1919-Humiliating, especially to Germans. Limits German army to 100,000, Blames Germans for War, Western Prussia goes to Poland, Alsace-Lorraine goes to France. There were other treaties for Turks and Austrians.
General John Pershing (1860-1948) army officer in WWI
League of Nations (1919-1946)-U.S. refused to participate
Russian Revolution (1917-1918)
Russian Monarchy is overthrown and Bolsheviks seize power.
November 7 (October 25), 1917-Bolsheviks storm winter palace.
January 1918-Constinuent Assembly disbanded.
July 1918-Royal family is executed.
Irish Civil War (1921-1923)
Cristero Rebellion (1926-1929?)
Rebellion of Catholics in Mexico against the reforms which had taken much of the church's control away. The Catholic rebels burned schools and killed some school teachers (schools had become secularized according to the reforms). Dwight Morrow mediated and lessened tensions considerably. Over 90,000 Mexicans were killed during this religious strike. Obregon was assassinated in 1928. Calles set up a system of control through puppet presidents under his PNR (The National Revolutionary party). The PNR later becomes the PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party). Carranza picked Lazaro Cardenas to be president in 1934, but was soon sorry for this decision. The two men bumped heads because Cardenas instituted many radical reforms. Calles was exiled. Manuel Avila Camacho succeeded Cardenas as president in 1940. Camacho backtracked on past reforms and anticlericalism.
Concentration Camps in Germany (beginning in 1933)-Dachau, Bergen-Belsen, Ravensbruck (for women), Neuengamme, Mittlebau-Dora, Buchenwald, and Flossenberg.
Spanish Civil War (1936-1939)
General Franco's Nationalist forces (with aid from Italy and Germany) versus Spanish Republic/Communist International Brigade.
Finnish-Russian War (1939-1940)
World War II (1939-1945)
Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Slovakia, Croatia, Finland, Spain, Denmark, Manchukao, and Nanking vs. Allied Powers: England (except Ireland), France, Russia, Netherlands, and United States.
Treaty of Versailles sets the stage for WWII. German economic depression and humiliation of Treaty of Versailles. Japanese wants to expand-1931-1932-Japanese take Manchuria and go into China (weakened by Civil War). Hitler is chancellor of Germany in 1933. Germany annexed Austria in 1938. Germany occupied Czechoslovakia in 1939. Italy conquered Ethiopia in 1935 and annexed Albania. Germany invades Poland on September 1, 1939. French and British (except Ireland) declared war 2 days later. Germany and USSR divide Poland-USSR defeats Finland. Germans push Allies from France and Belgium in spring of 1940.
Battle of Britain in Air (Brits win vs. Germans) in 1940
By Summer 1941-Germans had overrun Denmark, Norway, Greece, Crete, and Yugoslavia. Romania, Hungary, Finland, and Bulgaria allied with Germany for invasion of USSR which was halted by the USSR winter (1941-1942)
Nazi Invasion of USSR (June 1941)-Nazis invade the USSR. Dispatch approximately 3000 men in special units (Einsatzgruppen or "action squads") to kill all Jews in the occupied territory. Rumors of the massacres were heard all over the world.
U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt restricts U.S.-Japanese trade and gave financial support to Great Britain. Japanese aerially bombard Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. U.S., Brits (excepting Ireland), and the Netherlands declare war on Japan on December 8, 1941. China declares war on Japan on December 9, 1941.
U.S. declares war on Axis powers on December 11, 1941.
Japanese conquer Philippines, Indonesia, Malaya, Burma, and other islands in the Pacific.
1942-German General Rommel ("Desert Fox") is in process of conquering North Africa. British General Montgomery defeats Ramble at El Alamein.
Summer of 1942-U.S. Navy halts the Japanese progress at Coral Sea and Midway.
1942-1945-U.S. Navy engages Japanese in New Guinea and Guadalcanal. MacArthur takes New Guinea, Solomon, Philippines, Okinawa, and Iwojima in intensive bombing.
Summer of 1943-U.S. General Eisenhower combines British, American, and Free French and takes back North Africa.
Battle of Stalingrad (1943)-German retreat from USSR
Allies takes Sicily in July-August 1943-invade Italy, which surrenders in September of 1943.
Normandy/D-Day Invasion-June 6, 1944-retake France and entered Germany
Yalta Conference (February 4-11, 1945) Meeting between FDR, Stalin, and Churchill to discuss military and political strategies in the final months of WWII.
U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt died April 12, 1945.
Russians take Berlin by May 2, 1945 and Allies come in other side.
Adolph Hitler commits suicide on April 30, 1945.
End of war in Europe on May 9, 1945 (V-E "Victory in Europe" Day)
United Nations formed in 1945-It is headed in New York City. U.N. Charter signed June 16, 1945 in San Francisco, CA.
Potsdam Conference (July 17-August 2, 1945) Meeting between Truman, Stalin, and Churchill to decide what was to be done with Germany.
Japanese surrender (August 14, 1945)
Formal signing of Japanese surrender (September 2, 1945)
General George "Old Blood and Guts" Patton (1885-1945) Army officer in WWI and WWII
Berlin Airlift to Soviet Union-blockaded West Berlin (1948-1949)
Arab-Israeli Wars-1948-1949, 1956, 1967, 1973-1974-Tensions since 1920 British mandate for Palestine
Israeli Independence-May 14, 1948 (1945-1948-steady gains against Palestinians)
1948-1949-Arab opposition to Israel independence. Arabs consider land theirs. Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Syria, and Transjordan (Jordan) vs. Israel-Arabs made initial gains in invasion of Israel. Cease-fire on January 7, 1949. 1949-1956-Truce enforced by UN
October 1956-Israelis (under Mosha Dayan) attacked Sinai Peninsula (supported by British and French who were alarmed by nationalization of Suez Canal)
International opinion forced cease-fire in November 1956, Israel surrendered territorial gains after guarantee of access to Gulf of Aqaba on southern border.
Six-day War of 1967-[Not sure of order--Israel captured Gaza and East bank of Suez-UN Cease fire.] Egypt's Nasser took over Gaza Strip and closed Gulf of Aqaba to Israeli shipping. Israel launched big air attack and captured Sinai peninsula, Golan Heights on Syrian border, and Old City of Jerusalem
October 6, 1973 (Yom Kippur)-Egyptian and Syrian forces attacked Israel. Israel lost many men but managed to get Egypt and Syria out. Tentative cease-fire on October 25, 1973 but fighting continued until 1974.
1979-Camp David Accords-Egypt and Israel signed peace treaty and Israel began withdrawal from Sinai peninsula
mid-1982-Israel invaded and forced PLO (Palestinian Liberation Organization) out of Lebanon (PLO had launched guerrilla attacks from S. Lebanon until mid-1982). UN force sent to Lebanon to enforce cease-fire in 1982.
Korean War (1950-1953) At conclusion of WWII, Korea was divided along 38th parallel-North went to USSR and South went to US. We wanted to united North and South Korea but Chinese didn't want that. November 1950-Chinese crossed border, UN/U.S. driven back to South Korea. Seoul is in South Korea. Retaken by Communists. Unifying Korea has been abandoned as an objective. July 27, 1953-Armistice signed-2 Koreas will remain independent of each other with 2.5 mile demilitarized zone.
U.S. and Southern Republic of Korea (south of 38th parallel) vs. Northern People's Democratic Republic of Korea (north of 38th parallel) and Chinese with help of USSR. June 25, 1950-North invaded South. U.S. drove them to Yalu River (which separates Korea and China) in November 1950.
General Douglas MacArthur (1880-1964) is the Supreme Commander of Korea, served in WWI and WWII. Fired for subordination on April 10, 1951.
Cuban Revolution (1953-1959)
Fidel Castro of his mentor, Eddy Chibas' (who killed himself in 1951) Orthodoxo party leads revolution against corrupt Batista regime (Fulgencio Batista y Zaldivar had led a coup against U.S.-friendly Carlos Manuel de Cespedes in September of 1933 and overthrew reform-minded Ramon Grau San Martin, who became leader after Cespedes was overthrown, in January 1934 and had been in power 1934-1944 and became dictator in 1952).
July 26, 1953-Castro and over a hundred followers got into Moncado Military Barracks in Santiago de Cuba. Castro and some others escaped but 68 were tortured and killed by the army.
1954-Batista wins in an uncontested election.
1955-Batista frees political prisoners, including Castro who had been sentenced to a 15-year sentence for his part in the Moncado invasion. Castro went to Mexico to organize the M-26 Movement (named for the date of the Moncado Barracks invasion on July 26th).
November 26, 1956-Castro and 80 others invaded Cuba in a boat coming from Mexico. Batista's forces met and killed most of them. The few that escaped reorganize in the Sierra Maestra mountains and led a number of raids on military installations for weapons and supplies. Eventually, other groups join his M-26 movement.
March 10, 1957-Batista narrowly escapes assassination attempt by Revolutionary Directorate.
1958-Batista refuses to hold free elections which seriously taxes his alliance with the U.S. The U.S. withholds arms to force him to resign.
April 9, 1958-General Strike
November 1958-Rebels control highway into Santiago
December 1958-Rebels win Santa Clara
December 31, 1958-Batista and some of his followers hold New Year's Eve party and leave for the Dominican Republic
January 9, 1959-Castro enters Havana.
February 16, 1959-Castro becomes prime minister. He purges Batista supporters and begins to centralize economic control. Most of wealthy and middle-classes leave.
Bay of Pigs Invasion (April 17-19, 1961)
Approximately 1500 Cuban exiles (trained by U.S. Central Intelligence Agency) try to regain Cuba. April 15th-CIA pilots destroy part of Castro's air force. April 16th-President Kennedy calls off further CIA bombings. Cuban exiles land at Bahia de Cochin (Bay of Pigs) on April 17th. The exiles expected to gain supporters in Cuba. Castro's forces killed about 100 and captured the rest (who were released after ransom was paid). Major embarrassment to the U.S. and Kennedy administration (too little support for them or we shouldn't have been there at all).
Berlin wall begun September 1961
Cuban Missile Crisis (1962)
Vietnam War (1965?-1973 or 4)
Ho Chi Minh (1890-1969) Vietnamese political figure-communist. 1941-founded Viet Minh to fight Japanese. 1945-declared Vietnam independent with him as president. French returned until 1954. 1954-Geneva conference recognizes Ho as President of North. 1956-South refused to hold elections, Ho organized National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) to gain control of South.
1954-split into North (Communist)-which had USSR and Chinese aid and South (non-Communist)--which had U.S. aid. Tet Offensive launched by North Vietnamese (January 31, 1968). May 1975-South Vietnam fell to Communists. Viet Cong were Communist insurgents, not necessarily from the North. Civil War was aimed at reunification. By 1969-U.S. had approximately 550,000 troops in South Vietnam. Peace treaty in January 1973-involved South Vietnamese, U.S., N. Vietnamese, and National Liberation Front (provisional Communist government in S. Vietnam)
Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1969)
SALT (Strategic Arms Limitation Talks)-between U.S. and U.S.S.R beginning in November 1969 on regulation of nuclear arms.
SALT I (November 1969-January 1972)-Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms (both signed May 26, 1972)
SALT II (September 1972-January 1979)
Lebanese Civil War (April 13, 1975-November 1976)
Camp David Accords (September 17, 1978) Peace Accords signed by Begin of Israel and Sadat of Egypt.
Seizure of U.S. Embassy in Iran and Hostage Crisis --53 American hostages (November 4, 1979-January 20,1981) . This action, supported by Ayatollah Khomeini, was taken because U.S. admitted Shah of Iran for medical treatment
Soviet-Afghani War-Soviet puppet of Communist government in Afghanistan with support of USSR. Rebels were fighting it and doing well so USSR came in and US began to back the rebels. Soviet forces invaded in 1979 and established puppet government. Rebels fled to Pakistan and Iran. USSR withdrew in early 1989.
Iran-Iraq Wars (1980-1988) Iraq (primarily Sunni Muslims-Sunnis find authority in Sunna, or customary practices of Mohammed) invaded Iran (primarily Shiite Muslims-Shiites are more political and find authority in succession of imamis, or leaders) and Iran didn't like it
Libya Conflict - 1981-U.S. shot down 2 Libyan planes
Falkland Islands Conflict (April-June 1982) Brits vs. Argentinians over the Falkland Islands in the Atlantic Ocean-heavy losses with no absolute resolution though the Brits defeated the Argentinians.
Lebanon Conflict Marines sent into Lebanon to support Lebanese Christians (1982-1984). Approximately 250 U.S. Marines killed by bomb in Lebanon (October 1983)
Grenada Conflict (1983-September 1985) U.S. intervention in Grenada (Marxist government), expelled Cubans, December 1984-Democratic government restored. Invasion of Grenada (October 25, 1983) following Marxist coup d'etat of Bishop's regime.
Libya Conflict - April 15, 1986-U.S. bombed Tripoli and Benghazi because Qaddafi supported terrorists
Gulf War (Iraq vs. U.N., mostly U.S.) (1991)
Iraqis under Saddam Hussein invaded Kuwait in the fall of 1990. U.S. made them leave.
Somalian Conflict (December 9, 1992-March 1994) Marines were dispatched to restore order and get food to the starving. We pulled out when 30 Marines were slaughtered and about 175 were injured. We returned in February 1995 to help UN's peacekeeping forces leave in March of 1995.
Kosovo War (Yugoslavian Serbs vs. NATO, mostly U.S.) (1999)
Serbs invaded Kosovo and began to massacre ethnic Albanians (much as they did to the Bosnians in the Bosnian War a few years earlier). NATO (mostly U.S.) Forces bombed several sites (including a Chinese Embassy by accident). Serbian president Slobodan Milosevic eventually agreed to our terms.